Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a type of intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to natural intelligence, demonstrated by biological organisms.

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Authentication

Authentication is used by computer systems and applications to check that a user or other application is who they claim to be, and can access the system and its data. If a user positively authenticates themselves, they are then granted access to the application and data.

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B

Blacklist

A blacklist is a security feature that denies access to a system if the way the system is accessed is identical to the blacklist criteria. Blacklists are used to exclude certain types of access to sensitive data, systems, websites, or applications.

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C

Confidentiality

Confidentiality is an approach used to give authorized users access to sensitive data in accordance with business and role-based needs. It can also relate to the various methods used to ensure confidentiality against unauthorized users.

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Cybersecurity

Cybersecurity is a catch-all term for the various approaches, technology, tools, frameworks, methods, and best practices designed to secure computer systems from unauthorized access and exploitation.

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E

Exploit

An exploit is a way for a criminal or hacker to gain access to, or take advantage of, a vulnerability or flaw in a computer system. Exploits can be entered through specialized software, as manual commands, or by using data chunks and other techniques. An exploit will typically be followed up with data theft or other damage to an organization’s data and IT systems.

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F

Fingerprinting

Fingerprinting is a type of biometric technology, where someone who wants to access a sensitive system has their fingerprints recorded. Then, when they need to access the system, their fingerprints are scanned. Assuming a positive match, this is then combined with other login information to grant access.

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H

HTTPS

HyperText Transport Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is a communication protocol used to access information from a secure web server. HTTPS uses strong encryption to prevent others from reading or hijacking data when it is in transit between a secure web server and a browser.

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I

Integrity

Computer system and data integrity relates to the methods and approaches used to protect data and systems from unauthorized access, and to ensure that any data is real, accurate, consistent, and valid across its entire lifecycle.

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K

Key

A key, typically a network security key, is a series of numbers and characters that users, devices, apps, and infrastructure use to get legitimate access to a computer network. This ensures that only authentic people, processes, and technology can gain access.

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M

Malware

Malware is a type of malicious software that criminals use to gain access to computer systems, applications, and data. Malware comes in many varieties but is mainly designed to steal information and extort businesses for financial gain.

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Mitigation

Mitigation is the term for the various methods and techniques that security experts and others can use to minimize the risk of IT failure, data theft, and other activities that compromise data, systems, and applications.

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O

Office 365 Sign On

MS Office 365 Sign On can refer to how users get access to various Office 365 applications and data. It can also refer to the various techniques that are used to protect Office 365 accounts and data from unauthorized access.

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P

Patch

A patch is a fix that is applied to software, firmware, middleware, infrastructure, and other IT areas to improve or repair specific IT elements. In security terms, a patch is most often applied to remove vulnerabilities that could be exploited by criminals.

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Phishing

Phishing is an attack method used by hackers and criminals to get unwitting people to enter sensitive information and login details into a fraudulent website. Attackers typically use electronic communications like emails to influence people to enter details into their fraudulent websites.

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Privacy

Privacy, also known as data privacy or information privacy is a way to define what data can be safely shared with third-parties without violating personal rights, business policies, or other factors.

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Proxy

A proxy is a type of internet service that acts as an intermediary when transmitting and receiving information between users and services. A proxy server can protect the user’s identity or make it appear as if they are accessing data from a different IP address.

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R

Root

A “root” account is a special account on a computer system or network that provides privileged, superuser access and functions to special users. It is often targeted by hackers and malware using tools like a “rootkit.”

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S

Scraping

Data scraping allows a computer program to extract information from human-readable output, most often created by another computer program. Data scraping can be used on websites, software applications, and other areas.

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V

Vulnerability

A vulnerability is a flaw in a computer system that a criminal or hacker can exploit to get unauthorized access to systems, data, or applications.

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